Информация о статье

Количество просмотров: 1683

Название статьи SAFETY TONIC (ENERGY) BEVERAGES
Авторы

Kotova T.V. , Russian State University of Trade and Economics, Kemerovo Institute (branch) , pr. Kuznetskiy 39, Kemerovo, 650992 Russia , t_kotova@inbox.ru

Razumov A.S. , Kemerovo State Medical Academy , st. Voroshilova 22a, Kemerovo, 650029 Russia

Sukhikh A.S. , Central Research Laboratory of Kemerovo State Medical Academy , pr. Oktyabrskiy16a, Kemerovo, 650066 Russia

Polyakov V.A. , All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Food Biotechnology , st. Samokatnaya 4b, Moscow, 111033 Russia

Раздел: STANDARDIZATION, CERTIFICATION, QUALITY AND SAFETY
Год 2015 Номер журнала 1 DOI 10.12737/11243
Аннотация Volume growth of consumption of tonic (energy) beverages determines the necessity to study safety criteria of the components used in their manufacture, having a tonic effect. Relevancy of the study is stipulated by the fact, that for the first time biological safety of prolonged use of the main components of non-alcoholic tonic (energy) beverages is evaluated by identifying biomarkers damage of cell membranes and integral parameters of metabolism, the results of which are applicable to humans. Under conditions in vivo the effect of prolonged use of the main components of tonic (energy) beverages - caffeine, taurine and herbal extracts (adaptogens in traditionally recommended quantities) on a model object was analyzed. The study was performed on 150 adult Wistar rats of both sexes (females, n = 75; males, n = 75). Experimental animals were divided into 5 groups according to the sort of components of tonic (energy) beverages consumed: 0.03% aqueous solution of caffeine and 0.25 % aqueous solution of taurine; ginseng extract; Rhodiola rosea extract; herbal extract of Schizandra chinense. In the control group the purified bottled water was used. In all groups of animals after three weeks of intake of (energy) beverage components, specific biomarkers of organ-and-tissue damage of cell membranes were determined in serum and tissue: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and integral basic metabolic parameters: glucose, uric acid, urea and total cholesterol. It was stated, that with prolonged daily use of aqueous solutions of caffeine and taurine in amounts corresponding to the content in tonic (energy) beverages, there was a significant increase in activity LDH and CK ( twice and six times, respectively) concentration of urea and uric acid in serum. There is a tendency to increasing action of AST and hypoglycemia, reflecting subclinical pathogenetically a meaningful increase in metabolic rate with a predominance of catabolic processes. In the usage of herbal extracts as adaptogens metabolism is stimulated with a predominance of catabolic processes, mostly pronounced in the use of extracts of ginseng and lemongrass. However, the metabolic adjustment does not go beyond the range of physiological adaptation - not of a pathogenetically significant increase in the activity of enzymes, or biomarkers damage of cell membranes and hypoglycemia. On the contrary, there is a tendency to the development of hyperglycemia. Some specific gender metabolic reconstructions with prolonged use of restorative components of (energy) beverages are revealed.
Ключевые слова Biological safety, tonic beverages, caffeine, taurine, herbal extracts, biomarkers
Информация о статье Дата поступления 21 января 2015 года
Дата принятия в печать 6 апреля 2015 года
Дата онлайн-размещения 30 июня 2015 года
Выходные данные статьи Kotova T.V., Razumov A.S., Sukhikh A.S., and Polyakov V.A. Safety tonic (energy) beverages. Food and Raw Materials, 2015, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 97-103
Загрузить полный текст статьи
Список цитируемой литературы
  1. Evdokunina, E.A., and Rokotianskaya, V.V., Osobennosti rynka funkcional'nyh napitkov v Rossii (Features of the Market of Functional Drinks in Russia), Pivo i napitki (Beer and beverages), 2014, no. 5, pp. 16-18.
  2. Functional beverages, Mintel International Group Ltd., US: 2007, no. 1, GN1550173.
  3. Kalus, J., Steinke, L., et al., Energy Drinks may Pose Risks for People with high Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, FL American Heart Assocation, Orlando, 2007.
  4. Mason, M., The energy-drink buzz is unmistakable. The health impact is unknown, New York Times, 2006.
  5. Paken, P., Funkcional'nye napitki i napitki special'nogo naznachenija (Functional and speciality beverage technology), St. Petersburg: “Professija” Publ., 2010. 496 p.
  6. Kotova, T.V., and Zorkina, N.N., Opisanie profilja potrebitelja jenergeticheskih napitkov g. Kemerovo (The description of the energy beverage consumer profile of Kemero), Tehnologija i tovarovedenie innovacionnyh pishhevyh produktov (Technology and the study of merchandise of innovative foodstuffs), 2012, no. 4 (15), pp. 91-102.
  7. Kotova, T.V., and Petrik, N.A., Analiz potrebitel'skih predpochtenij pri vybore jenergeticheskih napitkov (Consumer preferences in choosing energy beverage), Tehnologija i tovarovedenie innovacionnyh pishhevyh produktov(Technology and the study of merchandise of innovative foodstuffs), 2012, no.6 (17), pp. 83-87.
  8. Kalinin, A.Y., Analiz riskov potreblenija kofeinosoderzhashhih pishhevyh produktov (Risk Analysis of Caffeine Containing Consumption of Food Products), Pivo i napitki(Beer and beverages), 2014, no. 2, pp. 40-44.
  9. Kotova, T.V., Razumov, A.S., and Pozniakovskiy, V.M., Harakteristika tonizirujushhego jeffekta bezalkogol'nyh jenergeticheskih napitkov (The characteristics of the tonic effect of soft energy drinks), Polzunovskii vestnik(Polzunovsky Vestnik), 2013, no. 4-4, pp. 132-140.
  10. Rajput, Z. I., Hu, S., Xiao, C., et al., Adjuvant effects of saponins on animal immune responses, Zhejiang Univer. Sci. B., 2007, vol. 8, no.3, pp. 153-161.
  11. Meyer, C. A., Scaglione, F., Ferrara, F., Dugnani, S., et al., Immunomodulatory effects of two extracts of Panax ginseng, Drugs exp. Clin. Res., 1990, vol. 16, no.10, pp. 537-542.
  12. Tohdaa, C., Kuboyamaa, T., Komatsua, K., et al., Search for natural products related to regeneration of the neuronal network, Neurosignals, 2005, vol. 14, pp. 34-45.
  13. Zhong, Y. M., Nishijo, H., Uwano, T., et al., Ginseng ameliorated place navigation deficits in young rats with hippocampal lesions and aged rats, Physiol. Behav., 2000, no. 69, pp. 511-525.
  14. Mook-Jung, I., Hong, H.S., Boo, J.H., et al., Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 improve spatial learning and increase hippocampal synaptophysin level in mice, J. Neurosci. Res., 2001, vol. 63, pp. 509-515.
  15. Rhyua, M.R., KimaYoonb, E.-Y., Leec, Y.J., and Chen, S.-N. Aqueous extract of Schizandra chinensis fruit causes endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation of isolated rat thoracic aorta, Phytomedicine, 2006, vol. 13, pp. 651-657.

Copyright © 2015, KemIFST. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided the original work is properly cited and statesitslicense. This article is published with open access at http://frm-kemtipp.ru.